References and Further Reading 1. Dualism The most basic form of dualism is substance dualism, which requires that mind and body be composed of two ontologically distinct substances.
There, Locke discusses four types of argument, the first of which he describes as follows: The first is, to allege the opinions of men, whose parts, learning, eminency, power, or some other cause has gained a name, and settled their reputation in the common esteem with some kind of authority.
When men are established in any kind of dignity, it is thought a breach of modesty for others to derogate any way from it, and question the authority of men who are in possession of it.
This is apt to be censured, as carrying with it too much pride, when a man does not readily yield to the determination of approved authors, which is wont to be received with respect and submission by others: Whoever backs his tenets with such authorities, thinks he ought thereby to carry the cause, and is ready to style it impudence in any one who shall stand out against them.
This I think may be called argumentum ad verecundiam. Locke remarks that argumentum ad hominem was already known under that name, which suggests that the others were invented by him in imitation.
Locke refers to these only as "sorts of arguments", and not as "fallacies". However, he says of ad judicium that "[t]his alone, of all the four, brings true instruction with it, and advances us in our way to knowledge.
Quote… [I]t is not what the man of science believes that distinguishes him, but how and why he believes it. His beliefs are tentative, not dogmatic; they are based on evidence, not on authority or intuition. Therefore, P is true. He took from his jacket pocket a small, black leather-covered notebook.
Were these men fools and dunderheads? When these cabinet ministers decided on affairs of state that could affect the world were they uneducated or callow?
For instance, those of us who are not physicians usually rely upon those who are when making medical decisions, and we are not wrong to do so. There are, however, four major ways in which such argument s can go wrong: If a question can be answered by observation or calculation, an argument from authority is not needed.
Since arguments from authority are weaker than more direct evidence, go look or figure it out for yourself.
The Renaissance rebellion against the authority of Aristotle and the Bible played an important role in the scientific revolution. Aristotle was so respected in the Middle Ages that his word was taken on empirical issues which were easily decidable by observation The scientific revolution moved away from this over-reliance on authority towards the use of observation and experiment.
Similarly, the Bible has been invoked as an authority on empirical or mathematical questions. An amusing example is the claim that the value of pi can be determined to be 3 based on certain passages in the Old Testament. The value of pi, however, is a mathematical question which can be answered by calculation, and appeal to authority is irrelevant.
Moreover, about some issues there simply is no expert opinion, and an appeal to authority is bound to be a mistake. The "authority" cited is not an expert on the issue, that is, the person who supplies the opinion is not an expert at all, or is one, but in an unrelated area.
The now-classic example is the old television commercial which began: The authority is an expert, but is not disinterested. That is, the expert is biased towards one side of the issue, and his opinion is thereby untrustworthy.
For example, suppose that a medical scientist testifies that ambient cigarette smoke does not pose a hazard to the health of non-smokers exposed to it. Suppose, further, that it turns out that the scientist is an employee of a cigarette company.
Clearly, the scientist has a powerful bias in favor of the position that he is taking which calls into question his objectivity. There is an old saying:arguing in favor of a Renai ssance education and one supporting a specialized education.
Be ready to discuss your answers. Arguments in favor of a Renaissance education: 1. 2. 3.
Arguments in favor of a specialized education: 1. 2. 3. Personal opinion: Do you feel that your education has been too specialized or not specialized enough?
Explain. Home — Essay Samples — Health — Vaccines — An Argument in Favor of Using Vaccines This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay .
Though it was written to appeal to the Renaissance state, many of its tenets still apply to modern politics. Machiavelli advances many arguments in The Prince.
As previous theorists setup their arguments by exploring the nature of men and the purpose of government, Machiavelli decided to . Re possible reasons for passivism: my personal one is that I had tried activism a few times over the years, and it backfired in various traumatic and unexpected ways, even though my words and actions were indistinguishable (to me) from those taken by other, much more successful activists.
That I, whose experience of teaching is extremely limited, should presume to discuss education is a matter, surely, that calls for no apology. Dualism and Mind. Dualists in the philosophy of mind emphasize the radical difference between mind and matter. They all deny that the mind is the same as the brain, and some deny that the mind is wholly a product of the brain.