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What the Board expects you to know: Risk factors in the development of addiction, including genetic vulnerability, stress, personality, family influences and peers. Explanations for nicotine addiction: Explanations for gambling addiction: Most of these only consider addiction to drugs chemical addictionfor example: However, loss of control is subjective and raises ethical issues since it suggests a certain level of culpability and blame.
To fully understand the process of addiction we need to consider the full range of psychological, biological, social and cultural variables, as well as consider the individual.
Behavioural addictions Can behavioural addictions such as gambling be classified similarly to chemical addiction? Clinical criteria of addiction Carnes A behaviour that is out of control Severe consequences Inability to stop despite these consequences Persistent pursuit Gambling and pathological problem essay self-destructive or risky behaviour Desire to stop the behaviour Use of the behaviour as a coping strategy Increasing levels of the behaviour needed to get the same effect tolerance Lots of time spent both in trying to engage in the behaviour as well as recovery Severe mood changes when carrying out the behaviour Social, occupational, and recreational activities sacrificed Characteristics of an addiction Griffiths believes there to be six main characteristics to an addiction.
The Board has condensed these into the following: Physical and Psychological Dependence Physical dependence centres on the withdrawal symptoms experienced when the behavior or the drug stops. In fact it is only when these symptoms are experienced that we can be certain that physical dependence has occurred.
Generally these include anxiety, pain, irritability and shaking. Psychological dependence or salience when the behaviour becomes the most important thing to the person. From the moment the addict wakes up their thinking is dominated by their next fix.
Alcohol and nicotine addicts tend not to be so obvious in this regard, since they are able to combine their addiction with other behaviours in social settings.
However, once deprived of their fix, salience becomes far more apparent. Tolerance Usually associated with chemical addiction such as alcohol or heroin, this one can also be applied to behaviours. Basically the addict needs bigger and bigger hits to get the same effect as they did initially with smaller amounts.
A gambler will need to take bigger risks and place larger bets. There is also cross-tolerance when tolerance to one chemical such as alcohol or nicotine results in larger doses of other chemicals, including medication. The best example is alcoholics who need larger doses of anaesthetic to render them unconscious.
Withdrawal Syndrome Refers to the collection of symptoms that are experienced when the addiction is not being fed.
Essentially these are the opposite of what the drug itself creates and usually involve pain, stress and anxiety. This collection of symptoms provides the motivation for maintenance via the process of negative reinforcement. The addict gets a rush or buzz when engaged in the behaviour.
The addict is also able to use their behaviour to bring about a mood change. Interestingly, the same chemical or behaviour can alter mood in different directions depending on time or setting. Nicotine can stimulate in the morning or relax before sleep.Gambling Addiction Gambling addiction is an issue found in numerous areas where gambling is legal.
People who are addicted to gambling, also know as problem gamblers, face many health risks including depression, suicidal thoughts, loss of sleep, loss of appetite, migraine and anxiety in addition to marriage breakdown, problems at work and bankruptcy (9).
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder with a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by exaggerated feelings of self-importance, excessive need for admiration, and a lack of empathy.
Those affected often spend much time thinking about achieving power or success, or on their appearance. They often take advantage of the people around them.
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Compulsive, or problem, gamblers are people who are addicted to gambling. Gambling is a drug to them, and they cannot stop gambling, no matter the consequences.
A study showed that most compulsive gamblers started during their teen years, and that they are in close to $80, in debt.
Unfortunately, the Be bug reporting system strips off the names of the people who report the bugs (to protect them from retribution!?) and so I don't know who wrote this. Pathological gambling and problem gambling affect approximately % of adults, men more often than women.
As legalized gambling has become more common, compulsive gambling has increased. To be diagnosed with a psychiatric condition, called pathological gambling disorder, the individual must.