The History Learning Site, 22 May Throughout World War One, the people of Germany had been led to believe by their government that they were winning the war. Government propaganda had been used to great effect. When the temporarily blinded Adolf Hitler had gone into hospital in the result of a gas attackhe, along with many German soldiers, was convinced that Germany was not only winning the war but was in the process of putting together a major military assault on Allied lines.
Transylvania and Bukovina became parts of Romania. These changes were recognized in, but not caused by, the Treaty of Versailles.
The treaties generally included guarantees of minority rights, but there was no enforcement mechanism. The new states of eastern Europe mostly all had large ethnic minorities.
Millions of Germans found themselves in the newly created countries as minorities. More than two million ethnic Hungarians found themselves living outside of Hungary in Slovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia. Many of these national minorities found themselves in hostile situations because the modern governments were intent on defining the national character of the countries, often at the expense of the other nationalities.
The interwar years were hard for religious minorities in the new states built around ethnic nationalism. The Jews were especially distrusted because of their minority religion and distinct subculture. This was a dramatic come-down from the days of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Although antisemitism had been widespread during Habsburg rule, Jews faced no official discrimination because they were, for the most part, ardent supporters of the multi-national state and the monarchy.
Although many states were set up as democracies after the war, one by one, with the exception of Czechoslovakia, they reverted to some form of authoritarian rule.
Many quarreled amongst themselves but were too weak to compete effectively. Later, when Germany rearmed, the nation states of south-central Europe were unable to resist its attacks, and fell under German domination to a much greater extent than had ever existed in Austria-Hungary.
The occupation of Smyrna by Greece on 18 May triggered a nationalist movement to rescind the terms of the treaty. With the nationalists empowered, the army marched on to reclaim Istanbul, resulting in the Chanak Crisis in which the British Prime Minister, David Lloyd Georgewas forced to resign.
As a result, Turkey became the only power of World War I to overturn the terms of its defeat, and negotiate with the Allies as an equal. Mandate Palestine and the Emirate of Transjordan. The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire became a pivotal milestone in the creation of the modern Middle East, the result of which bore witness to the creation of new conflicts and hostilities in the region.
Inflation more than doubled between and its peak inwhile the value of the Pound Sterling consumer expenditure  fell by Reparations in the form of free German coal depressed local industry, precipitating the General Strike. Most of this was replaced in and all immediately after the war.
Battles such as Gallipoli for Australia and New Zealand, and Vimy Ridge for Canada led to increased national pride and a greater reluctance to remain subordinate to Britain, leading to the growth of diplomatic autonomy in the s. These battles were often decorated in propaganda in these nations as symbolic of their power during the war.
Colonies such as the British Raj India and Nigeria also became increasingly assertive because of their participation in the war. Cartoon predicting the aftermath of the war by Henry J. Glintenkamp, first published in The Masses in In Ireland, the delay in finding a resolution to the home rule issue, partly caused by the war, as well as the Easter Rising and a failed attempt to introduce conscription in Irelandincreased support for separatist radicals.
This led indirectly to the outbreak of the Irish War of Independence in Also, there were several significant developments in medicine and technology as the injured had to be cared for and there were several new illnesses that medicine had to deal with. American opinion on the propriety of providing aid to Germans and Austrians was split, as evidenced by an exchange of correspondence between Edgar Gottan executive with The Boeing Company and Charles Osner, chairman of the Committee for the Relief of Destitute Women and Children in Germany and Austria.
Gott argued that relief should first go to citizens of countries that had suffered at the hands of the Central Powerswhile Osner made an appeal for a more universal application of humanitarian ideals. France[ edit ] French cavalry entering Essen during the occupation of the Ruhr.
To this purpose, the chief commander of the Allied forces, Marshal Ferdinand Fochhad demanded that for the future protection of France the Rhine river should now form the border between France and Germany.News about World War II (), including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times.
Nov 22, · Get the latest international news and world events from Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and more. See world news photos and videos at tranceformingnlp.com The Undermining of Democracy in Germany. In the years following World War I, (Reichsmark) by The causes included the burdensome reparations imposed after World War I, had at first resisted democratic reform.
They now felt compelled to support the . After conquering Poland, Hitler focused on defeating Britain and France.
As the war expanded, the Nazi Party formed alliances with Japan and Italy in the Tripartite Pact of , and honored its. Impact of World War One on the Weimar Republic World War One had a devastating impact on Germany.
Throughout World War One, the people of Germany had been led t. Introduction. World War II was the mightiest struggle humankind has ever seen. It killed more people, cost more money, damaged more property, affected more people, and caused more far-reaching changes in nearly every country than any other war in history.