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Euthanasia is generally classified in terms of certain subcategories, depending upon whether or not the person who dies by euthanasia is considered to be competent or incompetent and whether or not the act of euthanasia is considered to be voluntary, nonvoluntary, or involuntary.
Reasons for euthanasia essay person is considered to be competent if he or she is deemed capable of understanding the nature and consequences of the decisions to be made and capable of communicating this decision.
Nonvoluntary euthanasia is done without the knowledge of the wishes of the patient either because the patient has always been incompetent, is now incompetent, or has left no advance directive.
In the case of nonvoluntary euthanasia, the wishes of the patient are not known. An example of nonvoluntary euthanasia is when a doctor gives a lethal injection to an incompetent elderly man who is suffering greatly from an advanced terminal disease, but who did not make his wishes known to the physician when he was competent.
Another example would be a father who asphyxiates with carbon monoxyde a congenitally handicapped child who was never considered to be competent. Involuntary euthanasia is done against the wishes of a competent individual or against the Reasons for euthanasia essay expressed in a valid advance directive.
Examples of involuntary euthanasia include a son who gives a lethal overdose of medication to his father who is suffering from cancer, but the father does not want the overdose.
Another example is a physician who, despite the advance directive of a patient indicating that he or she does not want any actions to hasten death, gives a lethal injection to the patient who is now unconscious and suffering from the final stages of a terminal illness.
Although the above definitions may seem clear, there is much confusion in the words used to describe euthanasia and other actions that result in hastening death. The term "mercy killing" is often used to describe situations of nonvoluntary and involuntary euthanasia.
In several European countries, for example the Netherlands, the difference between euthanasia, homicide, suicide, and assisted suicide appears to be relatively clear. However, in the United States and Canada there is much confusion concerning the use of the term assisted suicide and physician-assisted suicide.
Definitions of Assisted Suicide Assisted suicide is usually defined as a specific situation in which there is a suicide, that is, an act of killing oneself intentionally. Adding the word "assisted" to suicide implies that another person provided assistance by supplying the means e.
In North America, assisted suicide has also been used in the media to refer to situations that appear to have been direct acts to end the life of a person intentionally initiated by another person.
This is because assisted suicide has lesser legal sanctions than the act of killing another person even if the homicide is for the relief of pain and suffering in a terminally ill individual and can be called "euthanasia. Sometimes there may be a fine line between what is considered assisted suicide and euthanasia.
For example, during the period between July and Marchwhen euthanasia was legal in the Northern Territory of Australia, a machine was invented whereby a physician attached the patient to a computer-operated pump that contained lethal substances. Although the physician hooked up and turned on the apparatus, the lethal injection was only given after the patient responded to a question on the computer screen by pressing on a key.
Arguments in Favor of Euthanasia Arguments in favor of euthanasia are generally based upon beliefs concerning individual liberty, what constitutes a "good" or "appropriate" death, and certain life situations that are considered unacceptable.
These arguments are generally based upon moral or religious values as well as certain beliefs concerning the value and quality of human life.
They also often suppose that people are capable of making rational decisions, even when they are suffering and terminally ill.
According to this view, certain ways of dying are better than others. Usually a good death is described ideally as drifting into death in a pleasing environment as one falls asleep.
The ancient Roman orator and statesman Cicero said that a good death is the ideal way of respecting natural law and public order by departing from the earth with dignity and tranquility. Euthanasia can be seen as a way to assure that a person dies in a dignified and appropriate manner. In his Essay on Suicide, the eighteenth-century Scottish philosopher David Hume stated that all individuals in a free society should be able to choose the manner of their death.
Some people, for example, feel that this right must be tempered by the obligation to not cause harm to others. Right to maintain human dignity. This argument is similar to the concept of the good death, except that the objective is to avoid a poor quality of life during the dying process rather than seek out a particular idealized way of dying the good death.
There are great individual differences in what constitutes a dignified way to live and die. Commonly mentioned indignities to justify premature death include: The general public often assumes that certain chronic and terminal illnesses inevitably result in a poor quality of life.
However, research suggests that the psychosocial environment determines quality of life as much or more than the nature of the illness, per se. In the English statesman and author Sir Thomas More described euthanasia to end suffering in his book Utopia as "those that are ill from incurable diseases they comfort by sitting and talking with them, and with all means available.
But if the disease is not only incurable but also full of continuous pain and anguish, then the priests and magistrates exhort the patient saying that he has become. In the philosophy professor Margaret Battin wrote that euthanasia to reduce suffering has two components: This definition generally assumes that the pain is not only intolerable but interminable.
Gerald Gruman described euthanasia in order to achieve "justice" in society as "thrift euthanasia," where decisions are made to end lives of certain patients in situations where there is competition for limited resources in medical care. When there is a scarcity of certain medical resources in a society, not all people who are ill can continue to live.
In such situations, one can suggest that "less valuable" individuals should give up their places to persons who contribute more to society; if they are unwilling, others should decide who should live and who should die.May 25, · At His Own Wake, Celebrating Life and the Gift of Death.
Tormented by an incurable disease, John Shields knew that dying openly and without fear could be his legacy, if his doctor, friends and. Jul 22, · Voluntary Euthanasia - Paper 1. Euthanasia should remain illegal in this country. I disagree strongly with this statement for reasons I shall give later in this tranceformingnlp.comasia can be described as a form of assisted suicide.
These are the different ways that Euthanasia is classed, voluntary euthanasia is conducted with the consent.
Save Paper; 4 Page. Answer: Many people have asked about this, and unfortunately, Aquinas does not deal with euthanasia directly. Aquinas does address whether, in certain circumstances, homicide might be permissible (ST II-II, q.
64).Specifically, it is not wrong to kill a person in order to preserve one's life so long as one does not intend to kill, but only to save . Madison Place Highlights include: GE® kitchen appliances Quality crafted custom designed flat paneled wood cabinets in kitchen with granite counters Impact resistant windows 18″ x 18″ Ceramic tile flooring in living areas on first floor Access control entry Full lawn maintenance Resort-Style Swimming Pool with a Cabana.
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21 vi sadi ka bharat essay help. A look at euthanasia and assisted suicide through the eyes of five people -- three patients, a doctor, and a hospice nurse, all of whom speak from their hearts, not from a script. 15 Minutes View.