Divided Angola gets independence The southern African state of Angola has gained its independence from former colonial power Portugal. In the capital, Luanda, huge crowds cheered and soldiers fired shots into the air as the new country's flag was raised at midnight. However, the main groups vying for power held separate independence ceremonies.
Republic of Cuba Orientation Identification. Christopher Columbus landed on the island in and named it Juana after Prince Juan, the heir apparent to the throne of Castille. The island lies about ninety miles south of the Florida Keys. The area of the country is 48, square milessquare kilometers.
About a third of the island is mountainous, consisting of the Guaniguanco chain in the western province of Pinar del Rio, the Escambrey in the south-central province of Las Villas, and the largest system, the Sierra Maestra, in the western province of Oriente.
Since the European conquest, the western third of the island has exercised military, political, economic, and cultural dominance. The capital is Havana on the northern coast of the western third of the island. The second largest city is Santiago de Cuba in the province of Oriente, where the Roman Catholic archbishopric was established in the colonial era.
Although Santiago sometimes is called the "second capital," the economic importance of the port of Havana has given it a hugely disproportionate role in the definition of the national culture. Recent population estimates range from At least 50 percent of the population is classified as mulatto mixed African and European descentalthough the cultural privilege assigned to whiteness probably causes many mulattos to minimize their African heritage.
Thirty-seven percent of the population claims to be exclusively white, and 11 percent is classified as "negro. In the African population was larger than that of whites. Although the larger slave-holding plantations were in the west, escaped and emancipated slaves often fled east, where they could more easily hide or establish themselves on small unclaimed plots of land in Oriente.
Thus, it is there that Afrocuban art, religion, and music were most strongly expressed and the cultural movement "afrocubanismo" began. Nearly all Cubans speak Spanish exclusively. The dialect is similar to that in the other Hispanic Caribbean islands, although the rhythmic speaking and the use of highly expressive hand gestures are distinctly Cuban.
Languages spoken by the indigenous population are extinct. French was spoken for a short time by slave-holding European refugees from the Haitian revolution but this has since died out.
The three major symbols of national identity have arisen from the three struggles for independence. The national anthem was composed at the start of the first war for independence, the Ten Years War It is a call to arms that evokes the image of the peasants of the town of Bayamo in the eastern heartland.
The second national symbol is the flag. It has a white star imposed on a red triangle, modeled on the triangular symbol of the Masonic lodges in which the struggle against Spain was organized. The triangle is imposed on Cuba three blue stripes alternating with two white stripes.
The third symbol of national pride and independence is the flag of the 26th July Movement, which contains the black initials M26J Movimiento 26 de Julio on a field of red. Afrocuban music and dance were also appropriated as symbols of the nation beginning inwhen the United States invaded the island, and especially after the triumph of the Revolution in History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation.
The Cuban nation has arisen from a history of colonial and imperial domination. Formal colonial status under Spain was ended only by the invasion by the United States inwhen military and corporate interests made the island a de facto colony of the United States.
After the triumph of the Revolution on 1 JanuaryCuba became truly independent for the first time since the colonial invasion of The Pre-Columbian population was about , consisting mostly of Arawak Taino and Sub-Taino in the central and eastern region and a few Ciboneys also called Guanahacabibes who had fled the advance of the Arawak and moved west to Pinar del Rio.
Indigenous lands were quickly distributed to European conquistadors and gold prospectors, and indigenous persons were enslaved and given to Europeans for use in mining and agricultural projects a system called the encomienda.JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.
An exploration of the nature and history of capitalism. Global capitalism, colonies and Third-World economic realities. The South African Border War, also known as the Namibian War of Independence, and sometimes denoted in South Africa as the Angolan Bush War, was a largely asymmetric conflict that occurred in Namibia (then South West Africa), Zambia, and Angola from 26 August to 21 March It was fought between the South African Defence Force (SADF) and the People's Liberation Army of .
"The crowning achievement of Branch's King trilogy is to show anew the moral power of [nonviolent] philosophy." -- The Atlanta Journal-Constitution "This is so far the best look at [the Sixties]. Divided Angola gets independence The southern African state of Angola has gained its independence from former colonial power Portugal.
The leader of one of the country's rival factions, Dr Agostinho Neto, of the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), has been proclaimed the country's first president.
three blue stripes alternating with two white stripes. The third symbol of national pride and independence is the flag of the 26th July Movement, which contains the .